Monday, June 20, 2016

Bank Preparation 172

Directions (Q. 1-15) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
The education sector in India is in ferment, hit by a storm long waiting to happen. The
butterfly that flapped its wings was the much-reiterated statement in a much publicized report that
hardly a fourth of graduating engineers and an even smaller percentage of other graduates, was of
employable quality for IT-BPO jobs. This triggered a cyclone when similar views were echoed by
other sectors which led to widespread debate. Increased industry-academia interaction, “finishing
schools” and other efforts were initiated as immediate measures to bridge skill deficits. These,
however, did not work as some felt that these are but band-aid solutions: instead, radical systemic
reform is necessary.

Yet there will be serious challenges to overdue reforms in the education system. In India as in
many countries education is treated as a holy cow: sadly the administrative system that oversees it has also been deceived. Today, unfortunately, there is no protest against selling drinking water or paying to be cured of illness, or for having to buy food when one is poor and starving: nor is there an outcry that in all these cases there are commercial companies operating on a profit-making basis. Why, then is there an instinctively adverse reaction to the formal entry of ‘for profit’ institutes in the realm of education? Is potable water, health or food, less basic a need, less important a right, than higher education?

While there are strong arguments for free or subsidized higher education, we are not writing
on a blank page. Some individuals and businessmen had entered this sector long back and found
devious ways of making money, thought the law stipulates that educational institutes must be ‘notfor-
profit’ trusts or societies. Yet, there is opposition to the entry of ‘for-profit’ corporates, which
would be more transparent and accountable. As a result, desperately needed investment in
promoting the wider reach of quality education has been stagnated at a time when financial figures
indicate that the allocation of funds for the purpose is but a fourth of the need.
Well-run corporate organizations, within an appropriate regulatory framework, would be far
better than the so-called trusts which barring some noteworthy exceptions are a blot on education.
However, it is not necessarily a question of choosing one over the other: different organizational
forms can coexist, as they do in the health sector. A regulatory framework which creates competition,
in tandem with a rating system, would automatically ensure the quality and relevance of education.
As in sectors like telecom and packaged goods, organizations will quickly expand into the hinterland to tap the large unmet demand. Easy loan/scholarship arrangements would ensure affordability and
access.

The only real structural reform in higher education was the creation of the institutes for
technology and management. They were also given autonomy and freedom beyond that of the
universities. However, in the last few years, determined efforts have been underway to curb their
autonomy. These institutes, however, need freedom to decide on recruitment, salaries and admissions,
so as to compete globally.

However, such institutes will be few. Therefore, we need a regulatory framework that will
enable and encourage states and the centre, genuine philanthropists and also corporates to set up
quality educational institutions. The regulatory system needs only to ensure transparency,
accountability, competition and widely available independent assessments or ratings. It is time for
radical thinking, bold experimentationand new structures; it is time for the government to bite the
bullet.

1. Why, according to the author, did the initiatives such as increased industry-academia and
finishing schools did not help to bridge the skill deficit?
A. These steps were only superficial remedies and the problem could be answered only by
reforming the entire education system.
B. These initiatives operated on a profit making basis rather than aiming at any serious systemic
reforms.
C. The allocation of funds to such initiatives was only one fourth of the need.

a) Only A b) Only B c) Only B and C d) Only A and B e) None of these

2. Which of the following suggestions have been made by the author to improve the state of
education in India?
A. Allowing the corporate organizations to enter the education sector.
B. Easy availability of loans and scholarships for making education more affordable.
C. A rating system for all the organizations to ensure quality.

a) Only A b) Only A and B c) Only A and C d) All A, B and C e) None of these

3. According to the author, what ‘triggered a cyclone’ which saw similar views on the state of
education being echoed across other sectors as well?
a) The campaign for allowing corporates in the education sector on a ‘for profit’ basis
b) The support for the increase in the industry academia interaction
c) The report mentioning that only a small percentage of graduates were employable in
software industry
d) The report supporting the idea of making the education completely ‘for profit’ in order to
improve upon the standards
e) None of these

4. Which argument does the author put forward when he compares the education sector with
sectors catering to health and potable water etc.?
a) Education should also be provided free of cost to all as health services and water
b) Taking an example from these sectors, there should be a protest against the
commercialization of education as well
c) Allowing corporate entry in education would result in rampant corruption as in the sectors
of health and potable water etc.
d) As in these sectors, commercial organizations should also be allowed to enter the education
sector
e) None of these

5. What does the author mean by the phrase ‘we are not writing on a blank page’ in context of
the passage?
a) Corporates would never enter education if they are forced to function on a non profit
making basis
b) The commercialization of education has already started in India
c) Education has been reduced to a profit making sector by some corporate organizations
d) Government will not allow corporates to enter education as India can’t afford to have
costly education
e) None of these

6. What is the author’s main objective in writing the passage?
a) To suggest the ways to improve quality of education in India
b) To highlight the corruption present in the education sector
c) To compare the education sector with other sectors
d) To suggest some temporary solutions to the problems in education
e) None of these

7. According to the author, which of the following was the only step taken in order to reform the
higher education?
a) Allowing organizations to enter the education sector on a ‘for profit’ basis
b) Creation of autonomous institutes for management and technology which were not under
university control
c) Setting up the regulatory framework for all the existing universities
d) Making the availability of educational loans and scholarships easier
e) None of these

8. Which suggestion does the author make in order to make the institutes of higher learning for
technology and management capable of competing globally?
a) To limit their autonomy to acceptable limit and give partial controls to the government
b) To allow corporate organizations to take them over in order to provide more funds
c) To increase the allocation of funds to such institutes
d) All of the above
e) None of these

9. Which of the following is not true in context of the given passage?
a) According to the law, education institutes should not be run for profit
b) There has been no protest against the selling of drinking water and paying for the health
services
c) Only either corporate organizations or government controlled organizations can exist in the
education sector
d) The introduction of ‘for profit’ corporates in the education sector has been facing a lot of
criticism
e) All are true

Directions (Q. 10-12) Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold
as used in the passage.
10. Devious
a) Dishonest b) Different c) Severe d) Various e) Trivial

11. Measures
a) Amount b) Quantity c) Steps d) Capacity e) Length

12. Bridge
a) Connect b) Eliminate c) Unite d) Link e) Fuse

Directions (Q.13-15) Choose the word/phrase which is most opposite in meaning to the word printed
in bold as used in the passage.
13. Promoting
a) Demoting b) Delaying c) Postponing d) Broadening e) Hampering

14. Noteworthy
a) Unnoticed b) Insignificant c) Indefinite d) Remarkable e) Obsolete

15. Transparent
a) Reputed b) Opaque c) Defective d) Corrupt e) Thick