Friday, March 30, 2012

UPSC - Combined Medical Service - Last Date 23-Apr


Last date for submission of applications 23rd April, 2012

Candidates are required to apply online by using the website

Exam Notice :


The eligible candidates shall be issued an e-Admission certificate three weeks before the commencement of the examination

The e-Admission certificate will be made available in the UPSC website for downloading by candidates

Union Public Service Commission on the 17th June, 2012

Centres of Examination: The examination will be held at the following centres
Agartala, Gangtok, Panaji (Goa), Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Patna, Aizwal, Imphal, Port Blair, Allahabad, Itanagar, Raipur, Bangalore, Jaipur, Ranchi, Bareilly, Jammu, Sambalpur, Bhopal, Jorhat, Shillong, Chandigarh, Kochi, Shimla, Chennai, Kohima, Srinagar, Cuttack, Kolkata, Thiruvanathapuram, Dehradun, Lucknow, Delhi, Madurai, Tirupati, Dharwad, Mumbai, Udaipur, Dispur, Nagpur, Vishakhapatnam

Services/Posts: The Services/Posts to which recruitment is to be made and the approximate number of vacancies to be filled are
Assistant Divisional Medical Officer in the Railways (250)
Assistant Medical Officer in Indian Ordnance Factories Health Service (66)
Junior Scale Posts in Central Health Service (150)
Medical Officers in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (204)
General Duty Medical Officer in New Delhi Municipal Council (32)
The number of vacancies is liable to alteration

Educational Qualification: For admission to the examination a candidate should have passed the written and practical parts of the final MBBS Examination
A candidate who has appeared or has yet to appear at the final MBBS examination may also apply
Such candidates will be admitted to the examination if otherwise eligible but the admission would be deemed to be provisional and subject to cancellation, if they do not produce proof of having passed the written and practical part of the final MBBS examination along with the detailed application which will be required to be submitted to the Commission by the candidates who qualify on the result of the written part of the examination
A candidate who has yet to complete the compulsory rotating internship is educationally eligible for admission to the examination but on selection he/she will be appointed only after he/she has completed the compulsory rotating internship
Physical and Medical Standards: Candidates must be physically and medically fit according to the physical/ medical standards for the Combined Medical Services Examination 2012
Fee: Candidates (excepting Female/SC/ST/Physically Handicapped who are exempted from payment of fee) are required to pay a fee of Rs 100/- (Rs one hundred only) either by remitting the money in any branch of SBI by cash, or by using net banking facility of SBI, State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur/State Bank of Hyderabad/State Bank of Mysore/State Bank of Patiala/State Bank of Travancore or by using Visa/Master Credit/Debit Card

Last date for submission: The online application can be filled upto 23rd April, 2012 till 11.59 p.m., after which the link will be disabled

UPSC Combined Engineering Service - Last Date 9-Apr

Name of the Post : Indian Engineering Services (IES)
Age Limit : Maximum Age 30 years as on 1 Aug 2012
No.of Vacancies : 560 vacancies

Educational Qualifications : Candidate must have a degree in Engineering or equivalent.Provided that a candidate applying for the posts of Indian Naval Armament Service (Electronics Engineering Posts) and Engineer Group A in Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing/Monitoring Organisation may possess M.Sc.Degree or its equivalent with Wireless Communication, Electronics, Radio Physics or Radio Engineering as a special subject. Candidates who qualify on the results of the written part of the examination will be summoned for personality test.

Application Fees : Rs. 100/- 

How to Apply : Candidates may apply online at UPSC Official 

Website up to 9 April 2012.

Exam Notice:

UPSC Online FAQ:

All the best

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Teaching at a Glance

A teacher’s responsibility towards a child is probably more than that of the parents. This is primarily because the child just doesn’t receive education from the school where he or she studies, but also learns the value systems from the same people.

For taking up teaching as a career, you require a passion for exchanging ideas, whether it is teaching at a school or in a college. While as a school teacher you are to educate delicate minds, in a college environment, the exchanges are at an intellectual level with students who are your friends.

In India, the available opportunities for teachers are in a variety of subjects such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, etc. The demand for good teachers is definitely high considering that today’s children are exposed to the internet and the information overflow. Moreover, virtual classroom teaching has been introduced by some schools, which increases the overall opportunities for teachers.

By pursuing a bachelor’s degree in education after or along with your graduation, you would be able to secure a position as a teacher in a good school. Usually, jobs as teachers in government schools are considered prestigious. However, if you are interested in new methodologies of teaching, you may try for a job in private schools as well.
To start a career as a lecturer in colleges, you may however need to take entrance examinations along with completing your Master’s degree and Ph.D.

The course content of a B.Ed course aims at equipping teachers with the right theoretical, practical, and analytical skills. A typical B.Ed course would include the following topics, overall:

1. Education Theories
2. Psychology of learning and development
3. Principles and Best Practices of School Management
4. Information Communication Technology and Instructional Systems
5. Electives and evaluating education
6. Subject education
7. Practical examinations
8. Team discussions
9. Live Presentations
10. Interaction with students
Thus, through training teachers on the above-mentioned skills, colleges equip teachers with the skill and knowledge to handle learners. Several colleges also provide placements to students. as well.
Some of the best B.Ed colleges in India include JSS Institute of Education, Bangalore, College of Teacher Education, Agartala; Indira Gandhi B Ed College, Karnataka; A G Teachers College, Ahmedabad; and National Council of Teacher Education, New Delhi. Besides, there are universities such as IGNOU (Indira Gandhi National Open University) which have a standard curriculum.
To get admission into these colleges, you will have to successfully appear for entrance exams and interviews.

Start early

As a student, if you are aiming at a career in teaching, you must be aware of the colleges that offer Bachelor’s in Education courses in the country. Besides this, you must be willing to learn and upgrade your knowledge along with teaching students as well. You may follow these steps and start preparing for a teaching career, after school or during college:
1. Collect information about colleges that offer B.Ed courses. For instance, start from the university in your respective city. If you are in Delhi, look for information on University of Delhi website. Similarly search for information on other universities. Come up with four to five choices.
2. Check which are the colleges that ask you to take an entrance exam. Take down the topics that you would be tested on so that you can prepare for the same. If not, check the minimum score in twelfth standard that you must have scored.
3. Be updated with information on schools or colleges you may apply to, after completing the course. This is so that you are ready to take the plunge once you are out of college.

Teaching should be chosen as a career by individuals who love sharing information and knowledge with others. At the same time, there are benefits of this career as working hours are usually not too long.. In a day, a teacher takes about 8 to 9 teaching sessions and can be back home for personal chores. This is the reason women usually prefer this career. However, these days, even dedicated men join as teachers. Besides the conventional subjects, Physical Training & Sports, Yoga and Art and Craft teaching are some preferred areas of teachers.

The job prospects for teachers are quite good. Work timings are comfortable and a teacher usually takes classes between 8 AM and  3 PM. For colleges, the lecturers can choose their class timings, which again ends maximum by 4 to 5 PM in popular universities.

The opportunities in significant universities and schools may be low, however there are several private schools and colleges where an individual may join after completing the education degree.

• Teaching offers an individual the opportunity to exchange ideas and knowledge Teaching is an enjoyable experience especially if the classroom is a bubbly lot with proactive students and learners. There are less chances of getting bored in the profession.
• Teaching is considered a very respected profession in all countries. The time schedules are convenient for an individual.
• Teaching is considered a low paying job when compared with other corporate jobs.
• Pay packages of teachers are very low in a few schools and colleges and very high in several others. As a result, the standard of education gets badly affected.
• Syllabus rather than subject of interest in India binds teachers. As a result, the practical methodologies of teaching difficult subjects such as Maths are ignored. When these subjects are taught theoretically, the students may not grasp the subject very easily.

Different roles, different names

Teachers are called Learning and Development professionals, coaches, or mentors within organization. Counselors who have completed their psychology courses also teach a lot of important things to others about life and personal management skills. Thus, while the same person is called by different names, the role played is more or less the same. The responsibility is to educate others and enhance their development, technically and personally.

Tips for getting hired

When you appear for an interview for the job of a teacher, be prepared on the following counts:
1. Prepare some points on why you like teaching and what is the significance of this profession in today’s India. State the points in the form of your interest for the subject, profession, and teacher and student life in general.
2. As teaching is considered a noble profession, do not lay stress on getting more money, especially if you are applying for a government school or college.
3. Research about the institution that you are applying to, well before the interview.
4. If the school or university is a private one, you can emphasise that you have wide exposure to people management skills and you keep upgrading your skills with the help of magazines and internet. This is because private institutions desire more global exposure as compared to government institutions.
5. List some learning theories of interest and state them as examples during the interview.
6. You may carry information about any awards or certificates that you had won as a student or during your previous employment.

Production Engineering at a Glance

Production engineering is a combination of manufacturing technology with management science. A production engineer typically has a wide knowledge of engineering practices and is aware of the management challenges related to production. The goal is to accomplish the production process in the smoothest, most-judicious and most-economic way.

Production engineering encompasses the application of castings, joining processes, metal cutting & tool design, metrology, machine tools, machining systems, automation, jigs and fixtures, and die and mould design. Production engineering also overlaps substantially with manufacturing engineering and industrial engineering.

In industry, once the design is realized, production engineering concepts regarding work-study, ergonomics, operation research, manufacturing management, materials management, production planning, etc., play important roles in efficient production processes. These deal with integrated design and efficient planning of the entire manufacturing system, which is becoming increasingly complex with the emergence of sophisticated production methods and control systems.

Production engineer
The production engineer possesses a wide set of skills, competences and attitudes based on market and scientific knowledge. These abilities are fundamental for the performance of coordinating and integrating professionals of multidisciplinary teams.

Petroleum Engineering at a Glance

Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Subsurface activities are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry, which are the activities of finding and producing hydrocarbons.

Refining and distribution to a market are referred to as the downstream sector. Exploration, by earth scientists, and petroleum engineering are the oil and gas industry's two main subsurface disciplines, which focus on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. Petroleum geology and geophysics focus on provision of a static description of the hydrocarbon reservoir rock, while petroleum engineering focuses on estimation of the recoverable volume of this resource using a detailed understanding of the physical behavior of oil, water and gas within porous rock at very high pressure

The combined efforts of geologists and petroleum engineers throughout the life of a hydrocarbon accumulation determine the way in which a reservoir is developed and depleted, and usually they have the highest impact on field economics. Petroleum engineering requires a good knowledge of many other related disciplines, such as geophysics, petroleum geology, formation evaluation (well logging), drilling, economics, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, well engineering, artificial lift systems, completions and oil and gas facilities engineering.

Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types:
Reservoir engineers work to optimize production of oil and gas via proper well placement, production rates, and enhanced oil recovery techniques.
Drilling engineers manage the technical aspects of drilling exploratory, production and injection wells.
Production engineers, including subsurface engineers, manage the interface between the reservoir and the well, including perforations, sand control, downhole flow control, and downhole monitoring equipment; evaluate artificial lift methods; and also select surface equipment that separates the produced fluids (oil, natural gas, and water).

Nuclear Engineering at a Glance

Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of the breakdown (fission) as well as the fusion of atomic nuclei and/or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. In the sub-field of nuclear fission, it particularly includes the interaction and maintenance of systems and components like nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons.

The field also includes the study of medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel and/or other related technology (e.g., radioactive waste disposal), and the problems of nuclear proliferation.

Mechanical Engineering at a Glance

It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines.

Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the design, production, and operation of machines and tools.

The engineering field requires an understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, and structural analysis. Mechanical engineers use these core principles along with tools like computer-aided engineering and product lifecycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices and more.

Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the industrial revolution in Europe in the 18th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. Mechanical engineering science emerged in the 19th century as a result of developments in the field of physics. The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology. Mechanical engineering overlaps with aerospace engineering, building services engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, petroleum engineering, and chemical engineering to varying amounts.

The fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering usually include:
Statics and dynamics
Strength of materials and solid mechanics
Instrumentation and measurement
Thermodynamics, heat transfer, energy conversion, and HVAC
Combustion, automotive engines, fuels
Fluid mechanics and fluid dynamics
Mechanism design (including kinematics and dynamics)
Manufacturing engineering, technology, or processes
Hydraulics and pneumatics
Mathematics - in particular, calculus, differential equations, and linear algebra.
Engineering design
Product design
Mechatronics and control theory
Material Engineering
Design engineering, Drafting, computer-aided design (CAD) (including solid modeling), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, physics, chemical engineering, civil engineering, and electrical engineering. Most mechanical engineering programs include multiple semesters of calculus, as well as advanced mathematical concepts including differential equations, partial differential equations, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and differential geometry, among others.

In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist for these subjects.

Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. In the United States it is common for mechanical engineering students to complete one or more internships while studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university. Cooperative education is another option.

Marine Engineering at a Glance

Marine engineering refers to the engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel

Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting a motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, in jet drives, an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the design of marine propulsion systems.

Steam engines were the first mechanical engines used in marine propulsion, but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships. Nuclear reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebreakers, and there have been attempts to utilize them to power commercial vessels. Electric motors have been used on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion.[1] Recent development in liquified natural gas (LNG) fueled engines are gaining recognition for their low emissions and cost advantages.

Marine architecture is the design of structures which support ship transport, fishing, coastal management or other marine activities. These structures include harbors, lighthouses, marinas and shipyards.

Instrumentation Engineering at a Glance

Instrumentation is defined as the art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production, or manufacturing area.

An instrument is a device that measures and/or regulates physical quantity/process variables such as flow, temperature, level, or pressure. Instruments include many varied contrivances that can be as simple as valves and transmitters, and as complex as analyzers.

Instruments often comprise control systems of varied processes such as refineries, factories, and vehicles. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. Instrumentation can also refer to handheld devices that measure some desired variable. Diverse handheld instrumentation is common in laboratories, but can be found in the household as well. For example, a smoke detector is a common instrument found in most western homes.

Output instrumentation includes devices such as solenoids, valves, regulators, circuit breakers, and relays. These devices control a desired output variable, and provide either remote or automated control capabilities. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system.
Transmitters are devices that produce an output signal, often in the form of a 4–20 mA electrical current signal, although many other options using voltage, frequency, pressure, or ethernet are possible. This signal can be used for informational purposes, or it can be sent to a PLC, DCS, SCADA system, LabView or other type of computerized controller, where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system.

Control Instrumentation plays a significant role in both gathering information from the field and changing the field parameters, and as such are a key part of control loops.

Industrial Engineering at a Glance

Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering dealing with the optimization of complex processes or systems. It is concerned with the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes.

Its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management, but the engineering side tends to emphasize extensive mathematical proficiency and usage of quantitative methods.

Depending on the sub-speciality(ies) involved, industrial engineering may also be known as operations management, management science, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering or ergonomics and human factors engineering / safety engineering, usually depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.

Recruiters or educational establishments use the names to differentiate themselves from others. In health care, industrial engineers are more commonly known as health management engineers or health systems engineers.

Genetic Engineering at a Glance

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct human manipulation of an organism's genome using modern DNA technology.

It involves the introduction of foreign DNA or synthetic genes into the organism of interest. The introduction of new DNA does not require the use of classical genetic methods, however traditional breeding methods are typically used for the propagation of recombinant organisms.

An organism that is generated through the introduction of recombinant DNA is considered to be a genetically modified organism. The first organisms genetically engineered were bacteria in 1973 and then mice in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994.

The most common form of genetic engineering involves the insertion of new genetic material at an unspecified location in the host genome. This is accomplished by isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence containing the required genetic elements for expression, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Other forms of genetic engineering include gene targeting and knocking out specific genes via engineered nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases or engineered homing endonucleases.

Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, biotechnology, and medicine. Medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now produced in bacteria, experimental mice such as the oncomouse and the knockout mouse are being used for research purposes and insect resistant and/or herbicide tolerant crops have been commercialized. Genetically engineered plants and animals capable of producing biotechnology drugs more cheaply than current methods (called pharming) are also being developed and in 2009 the FDA approved the sale of the pharmaceutical protein antithrombin produced in the milk of genetically engineered goats.

Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism.
In medicine genetic engineering has been used to mass-produce insulin, human growth hormones, follistim (for treating infertility), human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines and many other drugs.Vaccination generally involves injecting weak live, killed or inactivated forms of viruses or their toxins into the person being immunized.Genetically engineered viruses are being developed that can still confer immunity, but lack the infectious sequences.Mouse hybridomas, cells fused together to create monoclonal antibodies, have been humanised through genetic engineering to create human monoclonal antibodies.

Human cells in which some proteins are fused with green fluorescent protein to allow them to be visualised
Genetic engineering is an important tool for natural scientists. Genes and other genetic information from a wide range of organisms are transformed into bacteria for storage and modification, creating genetically modified bacteria in the process. Bacteria are cheap, easy to grow, clonal, multiply quickly, relatively easy to transform and can be stored at -80 °C almost indefinitely. Once a gene is isolated it can be stored inside the bacteria providing an unlimited supply for research.

By engineering genes into bacterial plasmids it is possible to create a biological factory that can produce proteins and enzymes. Some genes do not work well in bacteria, so yeast, a eukaryote, can also be used. Bacteria and yeast factories have been used to produce medicines such as insulin, human growth hormone, and vaccines, supplements such as tryptophan, aid in the production of food (chymosin in cheese making) and fuels. Other applications involving genetically engineered bacteria being investigated involve making the bacteria perform tasks outside their natural cycle, such as cleaning up oil spills, carbon and other toxic waste.

One of the best-known and controversial applications of genetic engineering is the creation of genetically modified food. There are three generations of genetically modified crops.First generation crops have been commercialized and most provide protection from insects and/or resistance to herbicides. There are also fungal and virus resistant crops developed or in development. They have been developed to make the insect and weed management of crops easier and can indirectly increase crop yield.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Advertising Career at a Glance

Advertising is the art of conveying a message to the masses. Advertisements generally persuade people about commercial products, services and even draw attention towards social issues. Advertising is one of the chief divisions of any industry that ensures the industry’s competitiveness in the corporate milieu. Indian advertising industry is on a roll and is all set to provide quality job to thousands of individuals in next few years.

A career in advertising is a lucrative employment option that one can choose in the rapidly growing Indian economy. Advertising agencies generally prefer highly creative and talented individuals who can think independently and at the same time work as excellent team players. If you are interested in pursuing a career in advertising, you must be highly target oriented and willing to work in a pressure cooker like environment. Since this industry is very competitive, you must be willing to give your best at all times to make a successful career.
To get into a specific department of an advertisement agency, you could choose from the following courses:

1.    Client Servicing: A post graduate diploma or an MBA in marketing
2.    Studio: Course in commercial art or fine arts (BFA or MFA)
3.    Media: Journalism, Mass Communication or an MBA
4.    Finance: CA, ICWA, MBA (Finance)
5.    Films: Specialisation in audio visuals
6.    Production: A course in printing and pre – press processes.
The first and the foremost requisite to take up a position in advertising world is to have a creative spark in one’s life. This creativity can be in any form, be it in language, communication skills, drawing, innovative thinking, and so on. 

Eligibility for most of the advertising postgraduate courses is graduation in any discipline with a minimum of 50 percent marks. Admission to most of these courses is based on an entrance exam and/or interview. Some institutions also offer graduate level courses in advertising, for which they admit students who have cleared class XII.

Various domestic and multinational companies in India certainly need highly qualified and experienced manpower for advertising. However, individual creativity and capability for innovation any day counts more than academic degrees in this fast paced business.

Job prospect

Job opportunities in advertising include openings in private advertising agencies; advertising departments of private and public sector companies. Job seekers can also find openings in newspapers, journals, magazines; commercial section of radio or television; market research organizations and so on. One can also work as a freelancer.
Advertising manager, sales manager, public relations director, creative director, copy writer, and marketing communications manager are some of the major job opportunities in this field.


• Challenging and satisfying job
• Hefty growth prospects that are one of the best in the country
• Heavy pay packets with dollops of project related incentives
• Chances of meeting the legends of advertising


• An industry that is known for its extremely long working hours
• High pressure and stress inducing work environment

Institutes to watch out for

1.    Indian Institute Of Mass Communication, Aruna Asaf Marg, JNU, New Campus, New Delhi - 110 067 URL :
2.    Mudra Institute Of Communications (MICA), Shela, Ahmedabad - 380 007, Gujarat URL:
3.    Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, V.L.Mehta Road, Vile Parle(West), Mumbai - 400 056, Maharashtra URL:
4.    Xavier's Institute Of Communication, St. Xavier's College , 5, Mahapalika Marg, Mumbai - 400 001 , Maharashtra URL:
5.    Symbiosis Institiute of Media and Communication, Pune

Important Websites

Civil - Services
• Union Public Service Commission -
• Staff Selection Commission -
• Department of Personal & Training -
• National Defence Academy -
• Indian Army -
• Join Indian Army -
• Indian Air Force -
• Indian Navy -
• All India Council of Technical Education -
• The Institutions of Engineers (India) -
• The Institute Of Chartered Accountant – 
• The Institute Of Company Secretaries of India –
• National Stock exchange of India -
• Bombay Stock exchange -
• Indian Institute of Banking & Finance –
• Indian Institute of Statistical Institute -
• Incredible India -
• Ministry of Tourism -
• Ministry of IT -
• Centre For Development of Advance Computing - 
• Indian Institute of Technology Madras -
• Supreme Court of India -
• Ministry of Law & Justice -
• National Commission for Women -
• Central Administrative Tribunal -
Library Science
• Raja Rammohun Roy Library foundation -
• National Archives Of India -
• Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta -
• Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad -
• Indian Institute of Mass Commission -
• Publications Division -
• DoorDarshan -
• Directorate Of Advertising and Visual Publicity -
• Press Information Bureau -
• Ministry of Health & Welfare -
• Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) -
• National Aids Control Organisation -
• Armed Forces Medical College -
• Indian Railways -
• Indian Railways -
• Ministry of Railways -
• Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Ltd. -
• Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Kolkata -
• CII Institute of Logistics, Chennai -
• Gobind Ballabh Pant University -
• Annamalai University -
• Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, -
• Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University -
• IIT Bombay -
• Mumbai University -
• Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad -
• Indian Council of Medical Research, -
• Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi -
• Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur -
• Patent Office, Govt of India -
• Institute of Intellectual Property Studies, Mumbai -
• National Law School of India University, Nagarbhavi -
• Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad (Deemed University) -
Self Entrepreneurship
• Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi -
• Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai -
• Ministry of Labour & Employment (Directorate General of Employment & Training) ADVANCED TRAINING INSTITUTE -
• Academy for Clinical Excellence (ACE) -
• Institute of Clinical Research (ICRI) - 

Monday, March 26, 2012

Telecommunication Engineer

Telecommunications engineering, or telecom engineering, is a major field within electronic engineering. The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities, such as complex electronic switching systems, copper telephone facilities, and fiber optics. Telecom engineering also overlaps heavily with broadcast engineering.

Telecommunication is a diverse field of engineering including electronics, civil, structural, and electrical engineering, as well as being a political and social ambassador, a little bit of accounting and a lot of project management. Ultimately, telecom engineers are responsible for providing the method for customers to have telephone and high-speed data services.

Telecom engineers use a variety of equipment and transport media available from a multitude of manufacturers to design the telecom network infrastructure. The most common media, often referred to as plant in the telecom industry, used by telecommunications companies today are copper, coaxial cable, fiber, and radio.

Telecom engineers are often expected, as most engineers are, to provide the best solution possible for the lowest cost to the company. This often leads to creative solutions to problems that often would have been designed differently without the budget constraints dictated by modern society. In the earlier days of the telecom industry massive amounts of cable were placed that were never used or have been replaced by modern technology such as fiber optic cable and digital multiplexing techniques.

Telecom engineers are also responsible for keeping the records of the companies' equipment and facilities and assigning appropriate accounting codes for purposes of taxes and maintenance. As telecom engineers responsible for budgeting and overseeing projects and keeping records of equipment, facilities and plant the telecom engineer is not only an engineer but an accounting assistant or bookkeeper (if not an accountant) and a project manager as well.

Electronics Engineering at a Glance

Electronics engineering, or electronic engineering, is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards. The term denotes a broad engineering field that covers important subfields such as analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is one of the most important and influential organizations for electronics engineers.

Typical electronic engineering undergraduate syllabus
Apart from electromagnetics and network theory, other items in the syllabus are particular to electronics engineering course. Electrical engineering courses have other specialisms such as machines, power generation and distribution. Note that the following list does not include the extensive engineering mathematics curriculum that is a prerequisite to a degree.

Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss' and Stokes' theorems, Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Antennas: Dipole antennas; antenna arrays; radiation pattern; reciprocity theorem, antenna gain.

Network analysis
Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

Electronic devices and circuits
Electronic devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-i-n and avalanche photo diode, LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuit fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog circuits: Equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of diodes, BJTs, JFETs, and MOSFETs. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, Power supplies.

Digital circuits: of Boolean functions; logic gates digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor 8086: architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Signals and systems
Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, z-transform. Sampling theorems. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems. Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density, function analogy between vectors & functions.

Control systems
Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams — Mason's rule. Open loop and closed loop (negative unity feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Analysis of steady-state disturbance rejection and noise sensitivity.

Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis and design: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID). Discretization of continuous time systems using Zero-order hold (ZOH) and ADCs for digital controller implementation. Limitations of digital controllers: aliasing. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems. Linearization of Nonlinear dynamical systems with state-space realizations in both frequency and time domains. Fundamental concepts of controllability and observability for MIMO LTI systems. State space realizations: observable and controllable canonical form. Ackermann's formula for state-feedback pole placement. Design of full order and reduced order estimators.

Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne noise conditions.
Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), Delta modulation (DM), digital modulation schemes-amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes, GSM, TDMA.

Electrical Engineering at a Glance

Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism.

The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. It now covers a range of subtopics including power, electronics, control systems, signal processing and telecommunications.

Electrical engineering may include electronic engineering. Where a distinction is made, usually outside of the United States, electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits

Alternatively, electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to process information. More recently, the distinction has become blurred by the growth of power electronics.

Electrical engineering has many sub-disciplines, the most popular of which are listed below. Although there are electrical engineers who focus exclusively on one of these sub-disciplines, many deal with a combination of them. Sometimes certain fields, such as electronic engineering and computer engineering, are considered separate disciplines in their own right.

Power engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices. These include transformers, electric generators, electric motors, high voltage engineering and power electronics. In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network called a power grid that connects a variety of generators together with users of their energy. Users purchase electrical energy from the grid, avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid as well as the power systems that connect to it. Such systems are called on-grid power systems and may supply the grid with additional power, draw power from the grid or do both. Power engineers may also work on systems that do not connect to the grid, called off-grid power systems, which in some cases are preferable to on-grid systems. The future includes Satellite controlled power systems, with feedback in real time to prevent power surges and prevent blackouts.

Control engineering
Control engineering focuses on the modeling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner. To implement such controllers electrical engineers may use electrical circuits, digital signal processors, microcontrollers and PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers). Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners to the cruise control present in many modern automobiles. It also plays an important role in industrial automation.
Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in an automobile with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the motor's power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.

Electronic engineering
Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. The tuned circuit, which allows the user of a radio to filter out all but a single station, is just one example of such a circuit. Another example (of a pneumatic signal conditioner) is shown in the adjacent photograph.
Prior to the second world war, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar, commercial radio and early television. Later, in post war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field grew to include modern television, audio systems, computers and microprocessors. In the mid-to-late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering.
Before the invention of the integrated circuit in 1959, electronic circuits were constructed from discrete components that could be manipulated by humans. These discrete circuits consumed much space and power and were limited in speed, although they are still common in some applications. By contrast, integrated circuits packed a large number—often millions—of tiny electrical components, mainly transistors, into a small chip around the size of a coin. This allowed for the powerful computers and other electronic devices we see today.

Microelectronics engineering deals with the design and microfabrication of very small electronic circuit components for use in an integrated circuit or sometimes for use on their own as a general electronic component. The most common microelectronic components are semiconductor transistors, although all main electronic components (resistors, capacitors, inductors) can be created at a microscopic level. Nanoelectronics is the further scaling of devices down to nanometer levels.
Microelectronic components are created by chemically fabricating wafers of semiconductors such as silicon (at higher frequencies, compound semiconductors like gallium arsenide and indium phosphide) to obtain the desired transport of electronic charge and control of current. The field of microelectronics involves a significant amount of chemistry and material science and requires the electronic engineer working in the field to have a very good working knowledge of the effects of quantum mechanics.

Signal processing
A Bayer filter on a CCD requires signal processing to get a red, green, and blue value at each pixel.
Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. Signals can be either analog, in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital, in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information. For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression, error detection and error correction of digitally sampled signals.
Signal Processing is a very mathematically oriented and intensive area forming the core of digital signal processing and it is rapidly expanding with new applications in every field of electrical engineering such as communications, control, radar, TV/Audio/Video engineering, power electronics and bio-medical engineering as many already existing analog systems are replaced with their digital counterparts.
Although in the classical era, analog signal processing only provided a mathematical description of a system to be designed, which is actually implemented by the analog hardware engineers, Digital Signal Processing both provides a mathematical description of the systems to be designed and also actually implements them (either by software programming or by hardware embedding) without much dependency on hardware issues, which exponentiates the importance and success of DSP engineering.
The deep and strong relations between signals and the information they carry makes signal processing equivalent of information processing. Which is the reason why the field finds so many diversified applications. DSP processor ICs are found in every type of modern electronic systems and products including, SDTV | HDTV sets, radios and mobile communication devices, Hi-Fi audio equipments, Dolby noise reduction algorithms, GSM mobile phones, mp3 multimedia players, camcorders and digital cameras, automobile control systems, noise cancelling headphones, digital spectrum analyzers, intelligent missile guidance, radar, GPS based cruise control systems and all kinds of image processing, video processing, audio processing and speech processing systems.

Telecommunications engineering
Satellite dishes are a crucial component in the analysis of satellite information.
Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a channel such as a coax cable, optical fiber or free space. Transmissions across free space require information to be encoded in a carrier wave in order to shift the information to a carrier frequency suitable for transmission, this is known as modulation. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. The choice of modulation affects the cost and performance of a system and these two factors must be balanced carefully by the engineer.
Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver. A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength. If the signal strength of a transmitter is insufficient the signal's information will be corrupted by noise.

Instrumentation engineering
Flight instruments provide pilots the tools to control aircraft analytically.
Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature. The design of such instrumentation requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory. For example, flight instruments measure variables such as wind speed and altitude to enable pilots the control of aircraft analytically. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points.
Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems. For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. For this reason, instrumentation engineering is often viewed as the counterpart of control engineering.

Computer engineering
Supercomputers are used in fields as diverse as computational biology and geographic information systems.
Computer engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware, the design of PDAs and supercomputers or the use of computers to control an industrial plant. Computer engineers may also work on a system's software. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering, which is usually considered a separate discipline. Desktop computers represent a tiny fraction of the devices a computer engineer might work on, as computer-like architectures are now found in a range of devices including video game consoles and DVD players.

Computer & IT Engineering at a Glance

Computer engineering, also called computer systems engineering, is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer systems.

Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering (or electrical engineering), software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture.

Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems. Computer engineers are also suited for robotics research, which relies heavily on using digital systems to control and monitor electrical systems like motors, communications, and sensors.
The first accredited computer engineering degree program in the United States was established at Case Western Reserve University in 1971. As of October 2004, there were 170 ABET-accredited computer engineering programs in the US.

Due to increasing job requirements for engineers, who can concurrently design hardware, software, firmware, and manage all forms of computer systems used in industry, some tertiary institutions around the world offer a bachelor's degree generally called computer engineering. Both computer engineering and electronic engineering programs include analog and digital circuit design in their curricular. As with most engineering disciplines, having a sound knowledge of mathematics and sciences is necessary for computer engineers.

In many institutions, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year, because the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree. Other institutions may require engineering students to complete one year of General Engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus.

Civil Engineering at a Glance

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.

Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering.

It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering.

Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.

A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering; the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.

Originally, a civil engineer worked on public works projects and was contrasted with the military engineer, who worked on armaments and defenses. Over time, various branches of engineering have become recognized as distinct from civil engineering, including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering, while much of military engineering has been absorbed by civil engineering.
In some places, a civil engineer may perform land surveying; in others, surveying is limited to construction surveying, unless an additional qualification is obtained. On some U.S. military bases, the personnel responsible for building and grounds maintenance, such as grass mowing, are called civil engineers and are not required to meet any minimum educational requirements.